Land, Soil, Water, Natural Vegetation and Wildlife Resources class 8 Notes Geography in PDF are available for free download in myCBSEguide mobile app. ), the resultant vegetation is called sub-climax vegetation. Physical Geography Notes: Introduction Unlike most scientists in related disciplines, Geographers may focus their research on nearly any topic or subject related to the scientific analysis of human or natural processes on earth. Genera and family of plants and major vegetation of the aforesaid floral kingdoms and floral provinces or regions. (ii) Tall Tussock Grasslands have the main species of Chiomechloa. The plant community of a given habitat has three basic characteristics e.g. Plant adaptations in tropical forests. Terms of Service 7. ); (v) Tectonic factors (continental displacement and drift, plate movements, endogenetic forces and movements, vulcanicity and seismic events etc. Therefore, areas like the tropics that are warm and moist foster plant transpiration allowing more plants to grow there. plant . On an average, there are four vertical strata of plant community in a given region mainly in the deciduous forests of the temperate regions: (i) Dominant layer represents the topmost layer of the plant community (fig. H. L. Mason (1946) discusses very helpfully three aspects of problems involving the distribution of plants. The replacement of one vegetation community in a given habitat by the other vegetation community is called biotic succession. The starting point was the "need for an agreed system of geographical units at approximately 'country' level and upwards for use in recording plant distributions". Account Disable 11. - Where most plant roots are found. : (i) A community consists of plants of two or more different species, (ii) A plant community consists of such species of plants which are ecologi­cally related and can live and grow together in a particular habitat, and. The gradual develop­ment of grasses covers the whole area of the concerned habitat and thus is developed a dense vegetation cover which changes and modifies the micro-climates of the concerned habitat. (iii) A plant community is well organized i.e., it has well developed composition and structure which are the result of continuous interac­tions between different plant species and between plant ‘species and their physical environment through time. The typical endemic floras of Australia having unique characteris­tics have developed due to its isolation from other continents of the southern hemisphere because of con­tinental drift. The main functions of plants are to trap solar energy and prepare their food with the help of photosynthesis and to circulate and transfer energy and nutrients among the organisms of different trophic levels of the food chain. The dispersal of these garden plants became possible when South Africa was colonized by Europe­ans who distributed these garden flowering plants from South Africa to the gardens of other parts of the world. Plant adapt to the extreme humid conditions in the tropical rainforest. (iii) The formation of soils through rock weath­ering and soil-organisms continues and the thickness of soils continues to increase with time. An ecosystem succession is the changing phases of dominant plant species occupying a particular climatic habitat or ecosystem. The main species of the coniferous family of gymnosperms are Podcarpaceae, Cupressaceae and Araucariaceae whereas flowering plants are included in Angiosperms of which Nothofagus is the most important plant. Vertical Stratification 4. Such competition is called intraspecific competition which means survival of the strongest plants and elimination of weaker plants but the preser­vation of species is maintained. On the basis of importance and dominant role of plants in the biosphere the study of plants is given more significance. Given World History handwritten notes are very important for UPSC, SSC, TET, State level PSC (iv) Fourth layer represents mosses on the ground surface and is also called as moss layer or ground layer. This kingdom includes a narrow strip in the north of Antarctica which runs from Patagonia and southern Chile of South America to New Zealand. The land plant species of the world are grouped into 6 major floristic kingdoms on the basis of their worldwide distribution (fig. The Use and Abuse of Drugs; Cell structure and organisation; Unit 1 – Cell Structure and Organisation; 2. ZIMSEC Advanced Level Geography Notes. Characteristics Plant Community 3. The units of vegetation the plant geographers study vary in size from the basic community, to groups of communities and their environment— ecosystems—to assemblages of ecosystems with distinctive vegetation and growth forms that extend over large geographic areas— biomes. This final phase or ‘sere’ of the successional develop­ment of vegetation community is called climax commu­nity, climax succession, climatic climax vegetation etc. Rocky Mountainous Region (RMR); Atlantic – North American Region (ANAR, fig. Disclaimer 8. Natural Vegetation and Wildlife ... Now, you have read the notes on this chapter, take a test to check your understanding of this chapter. ); (iii) Biotic factors (effects of living organisms mainly animals and man of a particular habitat on plants, interactions between different plant species and between plants and animals like natural selection, com­petition, mutualism, paraticism etc. Phytogeography is concerned with all aspects of plant distribution, from the controls on the distribution of individual species ranges (at both large and small scales, see species distribution) to the factors that govern the compositi… The different species of this unique genera of eucalyptus are so dominant in Aus­tralia that they represent 75 percent of all Australian plants. They are, firstly, the "intensity spans of the various environmental which are able to obtain their food from the seasonal and perennial grasses. Plant Nutrition; 5. Diffusion and osmosis; 3. One can see extensive plantation of eucalyptus in India particularly along the rail and road sides and it is being expanded rapidly by deliberate actions of man in all parts of the country irrespective of environmental requirements and suitability of this unique exotic plant. In simpler term, an ecological succession may be defined as the process of sequential development of ecological community or ecosystem. Boston House, 214 High Street, Boston Spa, West Yorkshire, LS23 6AD Tel: +44 0844 800 0085 Fax: +44 01937 842110 - Has a hardpan or layer impeding drainage. Now let's see how to learn fast the concepts associated with hydrosphere. Geography. Thus, the vegetation community upto this stage (sere) is mixed with lichens, mosses, grasses, shrubs and trees. The soil zone, though very thin in the beginning, is colonized by micro-organisms. Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing. - Has small spaces between particles and hence less aerated. As 95% of the users buy both, it is not logical for me to add the same content in both the notes as it would increase the number of pages and the printing cost. : (i) Short Tussock Grasslands have two main species e.g., festuca and poa. or. Nonvascular - These are smaller plants, such as mosses, that use diffusion and osmosis to move material through the plant. Such competition is called interspecific competition. CliffsNotes study guides are written by real teachers and professors, so no matter what you're studying, CliffsNotes can ease your homework headaches and help you score high on exams. In scientific studies, it is established that Geography is a word that originated from two Greek roots. The two sides of geography include: 1. These plants represent most plants of the gradient such as garden flowering plants (e.g., Loplia, Kniphogia, Erica Freesia etc.). Oceans covers about 2/3rds of the earth’s surface and supports a rich variety of plant and animal life. Cell Structure and Organisation Revision Notes: 13. 43.1) which is determined by the canopy of the largest trees. Geography A Level Notes garikaib 2019-04-10T06:56:51+02:00. Clements (1916) biotic suc­cession of vegetation community is primarily of two types e.g., primary biotic succession and secondary biotic succession: Primary succession refers to developmental se­quence of vegetation in those bare areas where there were no vegetation and animals earlier. Photosynthesis is a chemical reaction that takes place inside a plant, producing food for the plant to survive. 43.1). Inside Our Earth. (ii) Second layer is located below the dominant or crown layer and is represented by plants of shrubby life-form. Carbon dioxide, water and light are all needed for photosynthesis to take place. Thus, new vegetation develops under new changed environmental conditions in place of plagioclimax vegetation and the successional develop­ment of vegetation community takes place under nor­mal sere. Eucalyp­tus is said to be related to mimosa which is still found in South America (only a few species). Report a Violation 10. This floral kingdom is further divided into 3 sub-kingdoms e.g. A few genera are common to this kingdom and palaeotropical kingdom mainly Africa because the original flowering plants were developed in South America and Africa during Cretaceous period when all members of Gondwanaland were united together. The soil zones are colonized by various micro­organisms which decompose the organic matter and help in the process of energy transfer. Eucalyptus has been dispersed and distributed by man (deliberately) from Australia to almost every continent. Thus, plants are intermediary between biotic and abiotic components of the environment/ecosystems/biosphere. It is imperative to know physical geography through its display of environmental diversity. which represents mature ecosystem. This results in the development of various strata or layers between the soil surface or ground surface and the tree canopy. Image Guidelines 4. The roots of such tall trees penetrate far deeper in the ground. (ii) Dust particles blown by wind settle down in the concerned habitat. This vertical layering pattern or vertical stratification of plants is the result of competition among various species of plant community to get sunlight because it is the primary source of energy for photosythesis through which these plants manufacture their food. The vertical stratification of plant community is well developed. Such deflected climax is called plagioclimax and its various stages are called plagio sere. There are over 600 species of eucalyptus which greatly vary as regards their general characteristics as they range from tall, giant and shady eucalyptus trees to dwarf and stunted desert eucalyptus trees. Distribution of Plants: 6 Kingdoms | Biosphere | Geography. Free pure Physics, Chemistry, Geography and Social Studies revision notes. Warm Up - Take a Warm Up test with just 10 questions to check your retention. Introducing Physical Geography _____ I. (iv) Secondary community of mosses replaces the pioneer community of algae and lichens in due course of time. Content Filtration 6. Uploader Agreement, Role of Man in Plant Dispersal | Biosphere | Geography, Historical Evolution of Plants | Biosphere | Geography, Dispersal of Plants: Nature and Factors | Biosphere | Geography, World Distribution of Animals | Biosphere | Geography, Stability and Instability of the Atmos­phere | Precipitation | Geography, International Tourism in India: Introduction, History, Trends, Opportunities and Future, Forestry: Definition, Branches, Costs, Programme and Conclusion | Geography, Contribution of Russia to World Geography (In Hindi), French Scholars and their Contribution to Geography in Hindi. In this article we will discuss about:- 1. The sub-tropical forests of New Zealand are of evergreen type which is characterized by dense cover of tall trees having different vertical strata of other plants. This is possible only when the environ­ment of the concerned habitat is wet but if the environ­ment of the concerned habitat is dry and the surface is of sandy desert, much area is still open and devoid of vegetation. According to F.E. The study of the distribution of plants is the science of plant geography. This final plant community is referred to as the . Diffusion and Osmosis Revision Notes: 2. Plagiarism Prevention 5. National Geographic is the source for pictures, photo tips, free desktop wallpapers of places, animals, nature, underwater, travel, and more, as well as photographer bios. - Contains active micro organisms which breakdown organic matter into humus. Warm temperate areas of New Zealand are characterized by the dominance of the forest of gym-nosperms and angiosperms trees. : (a) If the plants of the concerned habitat are of the same species, there is competition for the aforesaid elements among the different members of the same species and only the fittest plants survive during the competition. In other words, ‘those plants which grow together in a particular habitat are referred to as a plant commu­nity, by which something more than a mere collection or assemblage is implied’. Learning the important concepts is very important for every student to get better marks in examinations. (iii) Third layer is formed by the herbaceous plants and is also called as herb layer. Topics of Geography and Environment have a lot of convergence. Plagiarism Prevention 5. I highly recommend you buy both the Notes as the topics covered in one notes are not included in the other. Succession simply means the entire process of directional and sequential change of either plant community (groups of plants adapted to a particular habitat) or the whole ecosystem through time. movement of substances from one part of the body to another ii) Explain the necessity of transport in plants and animals ... Name the transport structures of a flowering plant xylem vessels and tracheids transport water and mineral salts from the soil Form 5. Download World History Handwritten Notes PDF by Anudeep Shetty. Copyright 9. The vegetation developed during the deflected sere persists so long as the factors responsible for the disturbance remain active. Beautiful, ice-clad Mount Baker, elevation 10,778 feet (3285 m), is a Cascadian volcano 1/2 million years in the making. Phytogeography (from Greek φυτόν, phytón = "plant" and γεωγραφία, geographía = "geography" meaning also distribution) or botanical geography is the branch of biogeography that is concerned with the geographic distribution of plant species and their influence on the earth's surface. In other words, the transitional stages of sequential changes from one vegetation com­munity to another vegetation community are called SERE which is complete when the succession of veg­etation community after passing through different phases of changes culminates into equilibrium or mature con­dition. Content Guidelines 2. New dense matting of mosses also provides organic matter to the soils and thus the soils are enriched by the addition of organic nutrients. A secondary layer very often called as co- dominant layer is formed just below the crown or dominant layer by those large trees which are rela­tively shorter than the largest trees (fig. The study of plants has been developed as an important branch of geography which is called as plant geography which includes the study of classification of plants, their spa­tial distribution, origin and development, dispersal and extinction and functions. Thus, the principle of survival of the fittest becomes effective in the community develop­ment of plants. Class VII - Geography Chapter 1 - Environment Other Chapters Environment. Consequently, a few soil-living animals like mites, ants, spiders etc. This has led to the destabilization of vegetation community at large scale. : (i) Climatic factors (sunlight, temperature, moisture and humidity, pre­cipitation, soil-moisture etc. Africa, the second-largest continent, is bounded by the Mediterranean Sea, the Red Sea, the Indian Ocean, and the Atlantic Ocean.It is divided in half almost equally by the Equator. Thus, the present-day veg­etation of New Zealand is of modified type which is still characterized by two types of tussock grasses viz. : This floral kingdom is also divided into several floral provinces or regions (fig. The untouched areas still have sclerophyllous shrubs which attain the height of a few meters. For example, two habitats may have similar floras but their vegetation may vary from one another and two habitats having different floras may have similar vegetation. Plants play very dominant role in the biosphere because these are primary producers in the biosphere and provide directly or indirectly food to all terrestrial and aquatic animals including man. : (i) On the basis of habitats as the distribution of terrestrial and aquatic plants, (iii) On the basis of latitudinal and altitudinal extents, and. Class 11 Geography Notes Chapter 15 Life on the Earth Life on the earth is found almost everywhere. This uppermost stratum is also called crown or canopy which repre­sents the highest limit of plant community in a given region. (b) If there are more than one species in the concerned habitat, competition for getting space, sunlight, water and nutrients takes place among the individuals of different species wherein the strongest and most aggressive species establish dominance over the entire vegetation community. Our Changing Earth. 43.2) e.g., West African rainforest region, Mada­gascar region, Iran-Turanian region, East Asian re­gion, etc. Basic Structure of Plants The three basic parts of most vascular plants are the leaf, the stem, and the roots. The group or association of plants growing together in a particular habitat is called plant commu­nity. The most important source of Geography for UPSC is NCERT Books. The most outstanding and typical species of the grasses were Tussock Grasses though a few spe­cies of Sedges (plants which grow in water) and dicoty­ledon shrubs were also developed but these original native vegetation have undergone massive modifica­tion and transformation since the colonization of New Zealand by the Europeans. Image Guidelines 4. advance our understanding of the past and current distribution of plants, contribute to the development of more phylogenetically accurate taxonomic classifications, Thus, solar energy converted into the food or chemical energy is transferred to differ­ent animals and micro-organisms through different trophic levels of food chain. When the soil loses its fertility, that area is left out and new areas are cleared of vegetation for cultivation. Leaf - The leaf is an organ of a plant that is specialized for photosynthesis. Consequently, the moisture content of the soils is increased because the moss-cover retards evaporation. The floral kingdom has developed in the south­ern tip of Africa wherein the plants having bulbs and tubers have developed and these represent the typical plant species of this floral kingdom. Taking notes is an efficient way to organise the study material for revision. NCERT Notes on Geography for UPSC. The initial pioneer plants include mainly algae and lichens because they easily stick to the bare rocks and can easily adapt to the environmental conditions of the initial sites whether these may be hot, dry or cold. Content Filtration 6. The scheme represents a compromise between political and botanical divisions. There is a zonal pattern of vegetation from equator towards the poles and from seal level to vegetation level on the high mountains. Principles of organization. The initial sites for the primary successional development of vegetation may be of various types having varying environmental conditions as referred to above but for convenience such site is being selected which is of bare rock surface and does not have any earlier vegetation for the explanation of primary suc­cession of vegetation. Horizon ‘B’ - Lies below top soil. Terms of Service 7. Such areas or sites may be newly emerged sea floor, cooled and solidified basaltic surfaces due to recent lava flows, exposed lake bed due to drying of water, newly formed sand dunes, flood plains formed by recent alluvia, heaps of debris accumulated by man, the areas of exposed rocks due to melting of ice from the glacial areas, etc. The most important topics in the science and technology sections are – Human Body, Plant System, and Basic Physics Modules. Resources for top A1 candidates taking the 2021 Singapore-Cambridge GCE O Level exam. This process starts the process of pedogenesis (soil-forming processes) and thin veneer of soil is formed in due course of time. (vii) The final stage or ‘sere’ of the successional development of vegetation community is character­ized by the development of giant and very tall trees; the density of which increases rapidly and the whole of the concerned habitat is covered with dense and tall trees. The study of plants has been developed as an important branch of geography which is called as plant geography which includes the study of classification of plants, their spa­tial distribution, origin and development, dispersal and extinction and functions. There is a wide range of variations in the distri­bution of vegetation on the globe. This ‘sere’ of successional development of plant community is characterized by more soil-living organisms, sporadic plants and wide open areas devoid of any plant. There is a wide range of variations in the distri­bution of vegetation on the globe. are evolved. NOTES 1. a) i) Define transport . It does not mean that the climate of this site is dry because the rocks of the concerned site are bare and are devoid of any plant and therefore the environment becomes relatively dry due to excessive evaporation though the climate may be even humid. Uploader Agreement, Distribution of Plants: 6 Kingdoms | Biosphere | Geography, Climate Change and Plant Community | Term Paper | Geography, Role of Man in Plant Dispersal | Biosphere | Geography, Essay on Biosphere: Top 7 Essays on Biosphere | Geography, Stability and Instability of the Atmos­phere | Precipitation | Geography, International Tourism in India: Introduction, History, Trends, Opportunities and Future, Forestry: Definition, Branches, Costs, Programme and Conclusion | Geography, Contribution of Russia to World Geography (In Hindi), French Scholars and their Contribution to Geography in Hindi. But if all the species of the concerned habitat are equally powerful, there is maintained a balance of power among different species inspite of competition and the result is that all species are preserved and maintained. ‘A group of populations of different species living in the same local areas and interacting with one another is called ecologi­cal community’. Account Disable 11. Freshwater accounts for only 2.7% and 70% of these occurs as ice-sheets and glaciers in Antarctica, Greenland and mountain region and they are inaccessible because of their location. The best app for CBSE students now provides Land, Soil, Water, Natural Vegetation and Wildlife Resources class 8 Notes Geography latest chapter wise notes for quick preparation of CBSE exams and school based annual examinations. The association or group of plant communities of any region is called vegetation. Introducing Geography: Geography is the study of the evolving character and organization of the Earth’s surface. Some of the lichens secrete acids which react with the minerals of the rocks of that habitat resulting into dissolution of some minerals. These bulbs and tubers give birth to other plants as new shoots come out from these bulbs and tubers and are developed as plants. This kingdom includes most of Africa, South West Asia, South Asia, South East Asia and southern and middle portions of China. The concepts should be clear which will help The most important representative plant of this zone is Nothofagus which is also known as Southern Beech. This is the most extensive kingdom of all the floral kingdoms. Thus, primary succession of vegetation on a bare rock surface having no prior vegetation and animals starts and is completed through the following stages: (i) The initial plant-free site has relatively dry environment. 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